Role of Nucleotides in Infant and Children’s development

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colostrum bottle

Nucleotide, Colostrum for children’s immune system

Milk formula with nucleotides

The concentration of free nucleotides in human milk is higher than in bovine or cow’s milk. Since most infant milk comes from bovine, most brands are now supplemented with nucleotides. This practice is justified by studies that have shown that infants who received nucleotides in their formula were less likely to have diarrhea and also had better responses to vaccination, producing more antibodies and other immune cells (Carver et al., 1991; Pickering et al., 1998).

It has also been documented that term infants that had severe intrauterine growth-retardation had better catch-up growth if nucleotides were included in their milk formulas (Yu, 1998). The reason for this is said to be related to an improved immune function of the infant. This includes improved intestinal health, improved fatty acid metabolism, or improved cellular turn
over. All of these factors have been shown to be dependent on a correct and steady supply of nucleotides.

Term infants (who has growth-retardation) is able to catch-up growth if nucleotides were included in their milk formula. This is related to an improved immune function of the infant. This includes improved intestinal health, improved fatty acid metabolism, or improved cellular turnover. The brain development of a child is critical and a “brain empowering” protein supplement may be recommended.

Nucleotide synthesis is an energy-requiring process, it is possible that infants simply do not have enough energy to synthesize nucleotides. In addition, the tissue requirement for nucleotides is increased during periods of stress (Carver and Walker, 1995). Therefore, it is likely that the requirements for nucleotides are elevated in infants and young children compared to adults.

This further indicates a need for including nucleotides in the diets for infants and children. Nucleotides are, therefore, conditionally essential nutrients for infants (Uauy et al., 1994). The objective of the current contribution is to review the roles of nucleotides in diets for infants and children [A]

→ Battle of the proteins: Amino acids vs. Nucleotide

Child development linked to intestine health

The role of nucleotides in intestinal development along with brain cells have limited capacity for synthesizing nucleotides (Yamamoto et al., 1997). These cells, therefore, needs nucleotides in food supplement form (such as milk formula) that are being absorbed from the intestinal tract.

Ingestion of nucleotides is followed by an increase in the expression and activity of enzymes involved in nucleotide metabolism. In contrast to the purines, relatively large quantities of dietary pyrimidines are transported from the enterocytes to the hepatic portal vein (Uauy et al., 1994).

It has been shown that dietary nucleotides may increase the formation of mucosal protein, increase the concentration of DNA, and increase the length of the villi in the small intestine (Uauy et al., 1990; Carver, 1994).

Dietary nucleotides may also stimulate enterocyte differentiation (Sanderson and Youping, 1994). Parenteral supplementation of nucleic acids support mucosal cell proliferation and function as demonstrated by increased mucosal wet weight, protein and DNA contents, villous height, and narrower tight junctions of the jejunal mucosa width (Kishibuchi et al., 1997; Tsujinaka et al., 1999).

Supplementation of infant formulas with nucleotides to a level similar to the mother’s breast milk have documented positive response because of the development of the intestinal system and the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells (villi) because of nucleotides.

Dietary nucleosides (taken in as food supplement) and nucleotides have a positive effect on the intestinal microflora. Thus, when it is included regularly on the diet will result in an increased concentration of probiotic bacteria in the intestinal tract. This will, in turn, reduce the concentration of pathogenic bacteria. The combined effects of nucleotides in the intestinal tract are improved intestinal integrity which will increase nutrient absorption and an improved microbial flora that will contribute to a reduction in the incidence of diarrhea in infants and children.

Children’s immune system development and nucleotides

Nucleotides have clear positive results on the development and maintenance of the immune system. Infants and children that are stressed or ‘immunocompromised’ may have particular benefits of receiving dietary nucleotides, but equally the need of amino acids or dietary proteins for a growing body.

During the first two years of a child, the immune system of the intestine is rapidly developing and therefore it is very important that the child receives a full diet containing adequate amounts of nucleotides in form of dietary supplement. Which is not to say that milk formula will be better than mother’s milk.

Japanese study on infants

Between 1993 to 1997, held its first comparative study on infant care facilities in the USA, Japan, and Spain, which confirmed the important role of nucleotides for premature and artificially fed babies. Those which received food fortified nucleotides quickly drove weight deficit and had higher levels of antibodies in serum. Even more immunostimulatory effects of nucleotides reflected in malnourished children and children who have suffered long­term diarrhea as a result of intestinal infections. In the group fed with a diet containing nucleotides condition rapidly improved and also increase the number of protective compounds in serum.

In the group fed with a diet containing nucleotides condition rapidly improved and also increase the number of protective compounds in serum.

The best food for newborns and infants breast milk. Nucleotides are present in breast milk (among other substances) in relatively large concentrations. The first study, which showed the presence of various grafts nucleic acids in the form of POLYNT, NT, nucleosides, or their various compounds in breast milk dates back to 1960. Most of these substances, ie mixtures, often referred to as “total available nucleotides” contain colostrum (colostrum), 50­60 mg.

During breast­feeding their content in milk decreases for about 3 months at 30 mg. The total concentration of the individual components depends on the nutrition of the mother. Over time, as the child becomes another diet, their content in milk decreases.

If we bear in mind the role they play nucleotides in infant feeding, breast milk can not totally replace cow milk. Breast milk contains up to 5 times more usable nucleotides compared to cow’s milk. Preschool children and older children already receive a normal diet that includes an adequate supply of nucleotides (and other food ingredients) necessary for their growth. The situation is different in patients after an illness or injury and recovering children, eventually. children living in areas affected by industrial air pollution in urban areas or high traffic. It is with these children, whose immune system is subjected to permanent stress, it would be necessary to increase the daily ration supplemented with nucleotides appropriately food preparations. [C]

Reference:
[A] https://nutrition.ansci.illinois.edu/sites/default/files/ProcAlltech21AnnSymp.147.pdf
[B] https://www.ima.org.il/FilesUpload/IMAJ/0/63/31651.pdf
[C] Sima, P. Nucleotides in child nutrition. Nutrition and Food, 2001, vol. 56, no. 1, . 4­5

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